Accumulating evidence suggests that kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling plays a key role in controlling animal reproduction via direct stimulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release. Kisspeptin neurons are located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and anterior hypothalamus, such as the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and preoptic area (POA). The former is considered to be involved in regulation of GnRH/gonadotropin pulses and estrogen negative feedback action, while the latter to be responsible for the estrogen-positive feedback action to induce GnRH/gonadotropin surge. The present paper reviews a role of two populations of kisspeptin neurons in regulating the female reproductive function, such as folliculogenesis/steroidogenesis and ovulation with focuses on physiological and epigenetic aspects of kiss1 gene regulation. This work was supported in part by the Research Program on Innovative Technologies for Animal Breeding, Reproduction, and Vaccine Development.